Glasgow Dental Hospital making significant advances using DI4D Systems


University of Glasgow, Glasgow Dental Hospital & School




To capture facial movements to assess the degree of abnormality pre- and post-surgery

To assess the outcome of surgical correction of oro-facial deformities and quantify surgical changes

To explore the use of 4D stereo photogrammetry for the assessment of facial animation


DI3D System & DI4D PRO System


Validation of using DI4D PRO to evaluate facial movements.

Validation of using stereophotogrammetry to record and analyse facial morphology.

Publication in numerous high profile journals.

Results presented at several international conferences.


Facial expressions are crucial for communication and social interaction. The aim of surgical interventions are to at least maintain or improve facial function in terms of speech, facial expression, mastication, as well as maintaining a good level of facial attractiveness. Patients with an abnormal range of facial movements resulting from, for example, craniofacial disharmony such as cleft lip and palate, and reconstruction after removal of pathologies or a stroke, can have a significant impact on the individual’s quality of life.


Led by a pioneer in the field of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Professor Ashraf F. Ayoub*, the research team’s main objective at Glasgow Dental Hospital is to study facial deformities using the recent advances in 3D imaging.

A facial capture system was required to capture 3D images of patients' soft-tissue surface pre- and post-surgery using stereo photogrammetry. It was crucial the system chosen delivered an extremely high fidelity of data to be able to analyse and compare these 3D images in order to quantify facial movements.

The team also wanted to capture not only single static 3D images, but also to capture a "4D" time sequence of up to sixty 3D images per second (i.e. 300 3D images in 5 seconds). They wanted to explore the clinical applications of this 4D imaging capability, including the accuracy of the tracking process, and how it may be used in the analysis of the oro-facial region.


After extensive research by Professor Ayoub, the Systems chosen which could best provide this capability were the DI3D and DI4D PRO Systems – fully able to meet the team’s requirements and assist in the validation of their research. The high fidelity of data these Systems delivered was crucial in allowing the team to quantify precise facial movements and assess facial animation.

Working with the highest fidelity of data is vital for the evaluation of facial movement

“The DI4D PRO System has been crucial in showing how beneficial 4D imaging can be in the analysis of the oro-facial region.”

Professor Ashraf F. Ayoub, Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Glasgow Dental Hospital & School


DI4D's Systems have helped our research in the area of orthognathic surgery tremendously

“Being able to assess facial movements and facial animation with the level of accuracy provided to us by these Systems enables us to quantify our research much more accurately.”

Dr. Xiangyang Ju, Head of Image Processing Group, Medical Devices Unit, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde


The team has made significant advances in studying facial deformities and their work on investigating facial malformations is renouned and respected worldwide. Key points of validation attained to date include: using a 4D system to evaluate facial movements (Al Anzie T, et al , IJOMS, 2013), investigating the capture of facial morphology of children and young adults and validating the concept of stereophotogrammetry in recording and analysing facial morphology, (Ayoub A, et al, Cleft Craniofacial Journal, 2011), and the clinical application of using a 4D system to quantify the dynamics of facial animation, (Ayoub A, et al, IJOMS, 2014).

Numerous other research articles have been published in high profile academic journals including IJOMS, BJOMS and PNAS, with papers submitted and accepted at several major international conferences including ICOMS, IEEE Conferences and BAOMS Scientific Meetings.


*Professor Ayoub is a Bachelor of Dental Surgery (Cairo University), Doctor of Philosophy (Glasgow University) and fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow.

He is Professor of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Glasgow University, and Head of Biotechnology & Craniofacial Sciences Research Group. Prof. Ayoub is also the Editor of the Oral Surgery section of the International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery.

Prof Ayoub has received several awards and honours, published around 50 research articles in the field of facial malformations, and lectured on the same topic locally, nationally and internationally.

He is now one of the leading clinicians researching the use of 4D stereo photogrammetry for the assessment of facial animation.

“The high fidelity of data delivered from their 4D system and quality of facial performance capture, ensured an extremely successful end result.”

Michael Illingworth, Owner, Vine FX

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